Basil II Bulgaroctonos (AD 976-1025), with Constantine VIII. AV histamenon nomisma Constantinople, 1005-1025. + IhS XIS RЄX RЄςNANTIhM, bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, wearing cruciform nimbus with annulets in upper quarters, pallium, and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, and holding book of Gospels cradled in left arm / + bASIL Є COhStAhtIh R, crowned facing busts of Basil, bearded, wearing loros of square pattern and being crowned from above by manus Die, and Constantine, beardless, wearing jeweled chlamys pinned at right shoulder, holding long cross between them. The son of Romanus II, Basil II theoretically inherited the purple at the age of five in when his father died in AD 963; however he was overshadowed by regents and co-emperors until AD 976. He had to fight off several challenges to his rule and was not fully secure until AD 989. The experience made a hard, austere man of him. Monastic in tastes and militant in manners, he never married and devoted his whole reign to administering the state and leading armies into battle. He expended enormous efforts toward destroying the Bulgarian menace once and for all. At the Battle of Kleidion in 1014, he acquired his nickname “Bulgar–slayer” (Bulgaroktonos) when he captured and blinded 15,000 Bulgarians; the Bulgarian Tsar Samuel died of despair when he beheld the fate his men. The Fatamids and Arabs also felt his wrath and he oversaw the annexation of Georgia to the Empire. He kept wealthy aristocrats on a short leash and favored peasants and small farmers, backbone of the army. By Basil’s death in 1025, the medieval Byzantine Empire had reached its greatest size, power and prestige.
✨ RENCONTRE ✨
Vendredi 23 février à partir de 18h30, venez rencontrer Baptiste Touverey à l’occasion de la sortie de son roman Constantinople, qui est un coup de cœur de Magali ! 👏🏻
« Merveille d’un empire menacé, Constantinople est au cœur des plus grandes ambitions. Nicétas et Héraclius, héritiers d’un monde en déclin, sont prêt à tout pour éliminer l’empereur Phocas, l’Usurpateur, et prendre le pouvoir. Mais remporter des batailles ne leur suffira pas. Une jeune fille, qu’il faudra conquérir elle aussi, leur permettra d’accéder au trône... »
Venez nombreux ! La rencontre sera suivie d’une séance de dédicaces et d’un apéritif dînatoire. 😃
French made red-clay pipe section inspired by the Turkish 'chibouk', mid-late 1800s. Found on the River Thames foreshore, London.
This find provides insight into the heightened global exchange of cultural mores as trade and travel became significantly more international from the 17th Century onwards.
Tobacco was introduced to the Ottoman Turks in the 16th Century via the Spanish and their imperial conquests in the Americas. Over time the Ottomans developed their own method of growing and smoking tobacco.
European clay tobacco pipes consisted of a single piece combining stem and bowl but in contrast, an Ottoman pipe, known as a 'chibouk' consisted of a deep red-clay ('tophane') bowl, a multi-part wood stem up to five feet long and an amber mouthpiece. (See image bottom left - 'Oriental Man with Pipe', Nikolaos Gysis, 1874). This style of pipe and its associated social rituals then spread to Western Europe via Vienna. The city developed a taste for Turkish style tobacco consumption following the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. Around 1700 a number of cafes opened in Vienna in which only Turkish pipes and tobacco was sold and Turkish music and gowns became popular. Over subsequent decades this interest spread across Europe driven by enthusiasm for a perceived mystique of the Orient. This was initially among artistic circles but was further fuelled by Napoleon's predatory expeditions in the Middle East. In Britain Charles Dickens was an early advocate driven by his travels in Syria.
In the early 19th Century French pipe manufacturers, most notably Bonnaud of Marsaille, began manufacturing red clay pipe bowls in the Ottoman chibouk style (see image bottom right) for export across Europe, including Great Britain.