1/10 “Embryos develop according to instructions given by genes – a species can be manipulated by selecting which genes are spread”
Consider the many breeds of dog, from the hulking Great Dane to the minuscule Chihuahua or short-legged Dachshund. Despite the massive differences in their physical appearance, they all descended from the wolf.
Dog breeds are the result of human design, implemented through a process known as artificial selection. Over thousands of years people have selected individual dogs and bred them with similar-looking dogs to make certain characteristics, like short legs, more prominent. The same process has been applied elsewhere, too – for example, to breed tastier cabbages.
In reality, it is not the characteristics of dogs or cabbages that are being selected for, but the genes that cause these traits. Individual genes determine what length a dog’s legs will be or how a cabbage will taste, because an organism’s body grows according to instructions provided by its genes during its embryonic stage.
Genes are passed on via reproduction, a process by which the offspring get half their genes from their mother and half from their father. This creates individuals with new unique sets of genes and hence unique characteristics.
With artificial selection, the parents are carefully chosen because they exhibit similar desirable characteristics, with the goal that the genes for these characteristics will be passed on to the offspring. Such breeding has enabled some species to diverge into several vastly different breeds very quickly – for example, changing a wolf to a Chihuahua and a wild cabbage to a cauliflower. 📚 BLINKIST® #richarddawkins#thegreatestshowonearth#science#book#read#biology#bestseller#evolution#charlesdarwin#tailopez#homosapien#animal#nature#gene#knowledge#naturalselection
2/10 “The wide spectrum of life today is the result of populations being separated and hence evolving separately”
Life on Earth is a wonderfully diverse kaleidoscope of different species that live in a variety of environments. Every one of these species is in fact a cousin of every other; go back far enough in time, and you will find common ancestors that link all the species together.
The descendants of common ancestors have diverged and evolved into different species after being geographically separated. This separation allows their gene pools to develop independently from each other.
Populations of living species can become separated for various reasons. Sometimes great geographical events, such as earthquakes or floods, change the landscape of the land and split communities of life.
The movement of the continents due to plate tectonics can also separate populations of a species. Closely related fossils have been found in South America, Africa, Australia, India and Antarctica: their similarities are a legacy of the time when these continents were joined together into one massive continent. With the break-up of this ‘supercontinent,’ populations found themselves separated, and life diverged.
Sometimes life forms move across an existing geographical divide themselves and end up in the isolation needed to evolve into another species. Before 1995, there were no green Iguanas on the Caribbean island of Anguilla, but then suddenly a community arrived. It was found that they had migrated from another island over 160 miles away by floating on pieces of driftwood. Freak events like this demonstrate how populations can find themselves in new environments, separated from other members of their species, and eventually diverge into new kinds of species, adding new colors to the kaleidoscope of life. 📚 BLINKIST® #richarddawkins#thegreatestshowonearth#science#book#read#biology#bestseller#evolution#charlesdarwin#tailopez#homosapien#animal#nature#gene#knowledge#naturalselection
3/10 “Competition among individuals and species drives evolution through natural selection”
The reason that many trees tend to grow so high is the result of evolution through natural selection. Trees compete with each other for energy from the sun, and so the trees that thrive are those that grow above other trees and capture more sunlight. These trees then pass on their successful genes to their progeny.
Natural selection is also seen in the battle between predators and prey. Consider speed: Predators evolve to become faster in order to catch more prey, and the prey evolves to become faster to avoid capture. This is known as an evolutionary arms race, which results in both fast predators, like cheetahs, and fast prey, like gazelles.
However, evolution in one area will inevitably lead to constraints in another. The need for a gazelle to gain more speed with longer legs may lead to legs that are more susceptible to breaking, leaving the individual with no chance of survival. For the optimum chance of survival, an individual must have a balance between speed and a robust, healthy body. In animals where the balance is wrong, the chance of survival is severely limited.
These “arms races” between species are being fought on evolutionary timescales: each species has taken millions of years to build up its modern arsenal for survival, with the most successful genes being passed on between generations. Individuals with the genes that produce the strongest bodies survive and procreate, while those without these genes do not. This is the process of natural selection. 📚 BLINKIST® #richarddawkins#thegreatestshowonearth#science#book#read#biology#bestseller#evolution#charlesdarwin#tailopez#homosapien#animal#nature#gene#knowledge#naturalselection
PERTANYAAN SEPUTAR SABUN MAJA KANZA
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Sabun MAJA KANZA membersihkan & menutrisi kulit sehingga tampak sehat dan lebih cerah, tidak bisa untuk memutihkan sempurna seperti pemakaian cream karna kandungan sabun yg hanya menempel beberapa menit saja diwajah
Untuk memutihkan memang perlu treatment pemutihan (whitening) seperti cream wajah krna cream bs menempel selama berjam - jam
Namun Saat ini OWNER belum berani memproduksi cream wajah karena apoteker owner harus melakukan penelitian khusus terlebih dahulu untuk bisa menciptakan formula cream wajah yang aman tanpa kimia berbahaya
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Owner sudah merencanakan untuk mendaftarkan sabun ke BPOM.. Tapi ternyata Bpom tutup pendaftaran selama bulan Desember 2016 sd Januari 2017
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Insya Allah sekitar akhir Maret atau April sudah selesai pengurusan BPOM
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Ich hab erst gute 30 Seiten gelesen, muss das neue Buch von Jörg Magenau aber unbedingt jetzt schon zur Lektüre empfehlen. Ein MUSS für jeden Leser und jede Leserin - großartig! Wünsche dem Buch sehr einen Platz auf der Bestsellerliste. Und weil‘s so schön ist, hier noch ein Zitat: „Lesend werden wir eine Andere, ein Anderer. Und wenn wir in unsere eigene Existenz zurückkehren, könnte es sein, dass wir uns unterdessen verändert haben.“ @hoffmannundcampeverlag #bookstagram#bestseller#leser#leserin#buchliebhaber#empfehlung
One of our best-selling designs, Girafe, has a new look this season, adorned with cubic zirconia ✨🙌 Want to find out more? Step behind the scenes as we talk to our design team through the link in the bio! ☝️️